Transmission Control Protocol or Internet Protocol
The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suit was created by the Department of Defense (DoD Model). The Department of Defense Four-Layer Model was developed in the 1970s for the DARPA Internetwork Project that eventually grew into the Internet. The core Internet protocols adhere to this model, although the OSI Seven Layer Model is justly preferred for new designs.
Process / Application Layer
The Process/Application Layer defines protocols for node-to-node application communication and also controls user interface specification.
The Host-to-Host Layer handles connection rendezvous, flow control, retransmission of lost data, and other generic data flow management. The mutually exclusive TCP and UDP protocols are this layer’s most important members.
The Internet Layer is responsible for delivering data across a series of different physical networks that interconnect a source and destination machine. Routing protocols are most closely associated with this layer, as is the IP Protocol, the Internet’s fundamental protocol.
The Network Access Layer is responsible for delivering data over the particular hardware media in use. Different protocols are selected from this layer, depending on the type of physical network.